DOGS

Bestmate K9H2O was developed over a 2 year period with the assistance of Massey University’s Centre for Canine Nutrition, Animal Nutrition Division, Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomediacal Sciences.

Compared to standard tap water, palatability tests had an overall intake of up to 95% (depending on flavour) that was preferred by dogs of varing breeds, ages and sexes. This means that not only is the dog getting hydrated but also receiving the nutrients that the body needs for overall wellbeing. The body then simply flushes out any excess through urine so the dog cannot receive more than is needed.

The vitamin B complex and C were chosen and tested to provide a healthy and well balanced formulation that suits all breeds with specific flavours to suit every palette.

The role of the B Vitamins and Vitamin C in dogs:
Animals (and humans) require a regular intake of some 40 different dietary components for the proper operation of all their physiological functions. If only one of these is missing or its supply is inadequate, deficiency symptoms appear, which if prolonged, can be fatal. All of these dietary components and therefore “indispensable for life” (“essential”), and comprise “macro-nutrients”, the actual energy-yielding and body-building substances (proteins, fats, carbohydrates, amino acids, mineral salts) and also “micro-nutrients” (vitamins, trace elements).

The daily requirement for each vitamin for an animal is very small, usually measured in micrograms or milligrams; in this respect they differ from the “macro”-nutrients which are required in at least 1000 times larger amounts. Vitamins are organic compounds which act as mediators of synthetic and degradative processes without serving as building substances themselves.

The B Vitamins and Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) are water soluble vitamins, which means they are unable to be stored in animals so have to be consumed continually in the diet. Stress, disease and environmental factors such as extremely cold or hot weather are all know to increase the body’s requirement for B Vitamins and Vitamin C. Both types of vitamins play important roles in cellular metabolism, but they each have distinct functions. However, once the requirements of the animal for each vitamin are reached, any excess is simply excreted from the animal. For this reason, most published data relate to vitamin deficiency, as there are little toxicity problems with excessive intake.

Many critical metabolic pathways require the concerted actions of several B Vitamins. For example, one of the key reactions of metabolism is the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. It is a key reaction because it occurs at the intersection of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. This pathway point is critical in the production of energy and the synthesis of fat and protein by organisms. Three different B Vitamins (Thiamin (B1), Niacin (B3) and Pantothenic acid (B5)), act as coenzymes in this one enzyme reaction. Thus, a deficiency of any one of these vitamins compromises the efficiency of the other two.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)
Thiamin has an important function in carbohydrate metabolismand is indispensable for the transformation of carbohydrates to lipids and as such Vitamin B1 is present in almost all living tissues. Because of the importance in carbohydrate metabolism, a diet rich in carbohydrate increases the normal Vitamin B1 requirements.

More specifically, thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) is the major coenzymatic for of thiamin and is required for a number of enzymatic reactions, in both the Krebs cycle and glycolysis which result in energy generation. Thiamin may also have a function unrelated to coenzyme activity, since thiamin pyrophosphate is concentrated in nerve cells and may affect chloride permeability by controlling the functioinal channels.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Riboflavin is the precursor to a group of enzymatic cofactors called flavins. The two major coenzymes derived from riboflavin are flavin monoucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Flavins are used as coenzymes in about 50 enzymes in mammals.

Flavins participate in intermediary energy metabolism and function mainly in oxidoreductase types of reactions in the Krebs cycle.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Niacin must be converted to either nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH) or nicotinamide- adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) where it participates extensively in enzymatic reactions in the Krebs cycle or protein modification. More specifically, NADH contributes tocatabolic reactions (chemical reactions that break down complex molecules) and is involved inthe transportation of electrons acquired from intermediate metabolites to the electron transferchain and the ultimately production of energy. Alternatively, NADPH is involved in biosyntheticreactions that transfer electrons to macromloecules such as fat, protein and carbohydrate.

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)
Pantothenic acid occurs mainly in bound form as coenzyme A (CoA). Coenzyme A is found in all tissues and is one of the most important coenzymes for metabolism. It plays a critical role in the Krebs cycle for the production of energy from fat (glycerol and fatty acids), glucose and amino acids (Machlin, 1991). Coenzyme A is also involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, steroidhormones and cholesterol.

Vitamin B6 (Pyrodoxine)
The biologically active forms of Vitamin B6 are the coenzymes pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine phosphate (PMP). Pyridoxal phosphate is involved in most aspects of amino acid metabolism (including synthesis and breakdown (catabolism)), glycogen catabolism and lipid metabolism. It also plays a role in the synthesis of serotonin, adrenaline, noradrenaline and -aminobutyric acid (GABA). Pyridoxine is also involved in vasodilation via the production of histamine, and is required in the pathway where Niacin (Vitamin B3) is produced from trytophan. Pyridoxine also helps catalyse the synthesis of taurine from cysteine and participates with Vitamin C in the synthesis of carnitine from the amino acid lysine.

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
Vitamin B12 is the largest and most complex B vitamin, and the only one to contain a metal ion (cobalt). It occurs in a bioactive form as methylcobalamin which is a coenzyme for methionine synthase. This enzyme is responsible for the regeneration of methionine from homocysteine, and also removes a methyl group from methyl tetrahydrofolate (THF) to regenerate THF which is needed for pyrimidine biosynthesis. Pyrimidines are important constituents of nucleic acids and pyrimidine rings are found in thiamine (Vitamin B1) and riboflavin (Vitamin B2).

Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
Vitamin C primarily functions in the body as an antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Since it has been shown to protect against free-radical damage induced by the “oxidative burst” of neutrophils (Combs, 1998; Levine et al., 1994), and stimulate the phagocytic effects of leukocytes, it clearly plays a role in immune function (McDowell, 1989). Larger doses may play a protective role against carcinogenesis (Sauberlich, 1991).

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